04.03.2009


Olga's BlogAt the time of this project, Olga Dmitraschenko was a sixteen-year-old native Muscovite and incoming freshman to Moscow State University, one of Russia's most respected educational institutions. She served an internship with SRAS during the summer of 2006 as a research assistant on issues of popular culture. She stayed on afterwards with SRAS as the primary author of Olga's Blog, a series of language lessons based on modern Russian life and written in the language of Moscow's young, well-educated college students. The native Russian text has been glossed by the School of Russian and Asian Studies for vocabulary, cultural implications, grammar, and some youth slang.

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Editor's note: Mushroom picking is national pastime in Russia and the process is taken very seriously by many Russians, who will then pickle or bake the fungus. In this entry, Olga describes mushroom picking and names some of the common types of edible mushrooms found in western Russia. We've provided a pictorial for all types named here - but keep in mind that many mushrooms are poisonous and you should only eat those identified by a trained and seasoned expert!

  Detail from an 1860 painting of Russian Mushroom Pickers.
Detail from an 1860 painting of
Russian mushroom pickers by Polish
artist Franciszek Kostrzewski.
  A modern laquer painting of idealic Russian mushroom pickers
Detail from a modern lacquer painting
of idyllic Russian mushroom pickers.
Click here for larger image.
  A modern Russian mushroom picker.
A modern Russian mushroom picker.

Olga's Blog:
Национальная страсть

Lesson 8, Part 2
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Note that all bold words and phrases have annotation below. Red words and phrases indicate the subject of this blog entry's grammer lesson.

Однажды мы с родителями увидели засохшее дерево, полностью облепленное опятами. Для того, чтобы собрать грибы с верхушки, я встала папе на плечи, и только тогда достала их.

Собранные грибы в этот же день тщательно перебирают. Есть несколько способов приготовления грибов. В основном это зависит от их сорта. Белые, подберезовики и подосиновики можно жарить, варить, мариновать или сушить и замораживать для длительного хранения. Грузди обычно только солят с добавлением различных пряностей. Опята чаще жарят или замораживают после предварительного отваривания.

Bсе свежие грибы особенно вкусны, если их пожарить с луком и растительным маслом. При этом весь дом наполняется лесным ароматом. Суп из сушеных грибов по содержанию белка не уступает мясному. Поэтому во время поста одним из основных блюд для христиан являются грибы.

В праздничные дни грибы запекают в глиняных горшочках с овощами и сыром, пекут пироги с грибной начинкой и множество других вкусных блюд. Соленые грибы, приправленные маслом и зеленью, являются универсальной закуской на русском столе.

Самые вкусные грибы продаются на рынках, но если вы опасаетесь покупать их там, то берите их в супермаркетах. Но интереснее всего собирать грибы самим. Я с удовольствием составлю вам компанию.

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Vocabulary and Cultural Annotations

  1.  
    Selected Programs Abroad:
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    Засохшее дерево: Dead tree. Note that "засохшее" is an adjectival form of the verb "засохнуть / засыхать," which also means "to dry up" or "to wither." 
  2. Облепленное: Covered (with) (Remember that a full list of the various types of mushrooms was given in the first part of this blog entry.)
  3. Я встала папе на плечи: I stood on my father's shoulders. Note the use of cases in this phrase - папе (dative), and на плечи (prepositional)
  4. Собранные грибы в этот же день тщательно перебирают: We carefully sorted the mushrooms on that very same day. Some native Russians also pointed out to us a rhetorical twist to this sentence as "тщательно" can mean both "carefully" and "thoroughly" and while "перебирают" can mean "to take in excess" or to "sort out" or "to look over." Thus, at one time, Olga may be reveling in the bountiful harvest and complimenting herself and her father for their careful and diligent work. However, other Russians have argued that this rhetorical analysis may be a bit of stretch.
  5. Длительное хранение: Long-term storage; preservation.
  6. Различные пряности: various spices. Note that the sigular, пряность is feminine although it ends in "ь." Here we have used the plural as "различная пряность" in Russian reads a bit strangely (as would "various spice") in English, in our view. You may also find the word "пряность" familiar as it is related to "пряник," the well-known Russian gingerbread cookie.
  7. Предварительное отваривание: an preliminary boiling. The word "предварительное" indicates that the word it modifies is only a first step in a longer process even though the word "отваривание" indicates that the boiling is thorough.
  8. Суп из сушеных грибов по содержанию белка не уступает мясному: A soup made from dried mushrooms is not inferior in protein (levels) to (soup made from) meat. "Уступить/уступать" means "to cede to" or "to be inferior to."
  9. Пост: a Russian holiday equivalent to Lent in Catholicism. The word "пост" can also refer to simply "a fast" as in "fasting." The holiday that Olga is referring to here is often called "Великий пост" in order to differentiate it from other fasts that the Orthodox Church observes and/or that individuals might commit to. During times of fasting, Russians are, among other things, expected to give up meat. Russians who follow this practice believe that a diet high in traditional "fast" foods like mushrooms and grechka cleanses the body and frees the spirit.
  10. Праздничные дни - holiday days. This phrase is usually used to refer to a holiday celebrated over several days. Великий пост lasts for 40 days. The plural "праздники" generally refers to multiple holidays.
  11. Запекать в глиняных горшочках – to bake in clay pots. This is considered a traditional Russian and exceptionally tasty way to prepare foods.
  12. Начинка: filling; stuffing. In slang, the world "начинка" is used to refer to "insides" or "guts" such as "электронная начинка автомобиля," meaning "the electronic 'guts' of the car."
  13. Соленые грибы, приправленные маслом и зеленью: Pickled mushrooms seasoned with oil and greens. These, together with pickled cucumbers and pickled tomatoes are the most popular Russian "закуски" (see below). All three, especially with black bread, are traditional accompaniments to vodka.
  14. Закуска: appetizer or snack.
  15. С удовольствием: with pleasure. This phrase is often used to refer to acts performed with or for someone.
  16. Составить компанию: to keep company. "Составить / составлять" means "to make," "to compile," or "to prepare."

 


Grammar Focus
Conjunctions, Part II

The conjunction is an auxiliary part of speech linking homogeneous parts within a simple sentence or simple sentences within a compound sentence.

 

 

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- чтобы -

Чтобы полюбить музыку, надо прежде всего ее слушать. (Russian composer D. Shostakovich)
In order to fall in love with music, one must first of all listen to it.

The conjunction чтобы is a conjunction of purpose meaning "in order to." Sometimes "для того, чтобы" is also used with the same meaning.  

 

- так как -

Жили да были два генерала, и так как оба были легкомысленны, то в скором времени, по щучьему велению, по моему хотению, очутились на необитаемом острове. (Saltykov-Shchedrin,  A Tale of How One Man Fed Two Generals)
Once upon a time, there were two generals, and, because they were both not-to-bright, they were quickly whisked off on my orders to live on an uninhabited island.

"Так как" is a a causal conjunction meaning "because." A much more commonly used preposition meaning "because" is "потому что."

 

- если -

Если вашу дочь лечил фабричный врач, то пусть и продолжает лечить. (Chekhov, Case Study
If your daughter has been treated by the factory's doctor, then let him continue to treat her.

"Если" is a conditional conjunction meaning "if." "Который" is also a conditional conjunction meaning "who," "which," or "that."

 

- пока -

Пока я говорил, Ася все больше и больше наклонялась вперед - и вдруг упала на колени, уронила голову на руки и зарыдала. (Turgenev, Asya)
While I spoke, Asya leaned closer and closer - and then suddenly fell to her knees, dropped her head in her hands and began to sob.  

"Пока" is a temporal conjunction meaning "while" or "until." "Когда," meaning "when" or "while" is another temporal conjunction.

 

- как будто –

Дом также стоял неподвижно, нерадушно, как будто ему дела не было до того, кто приехал в него. (Tolstoy, War and Peace)
The house was standing motionlessly, inhospitably, as if it did not care about the person who entered it.

"Как будто" is a comparative conjunction meaning "as though" or "as if."

 

- что -

Владимир с ужасом увидел, что он заехал в незнакомый лес. (Pushkin, Tales of the Late Ivan Petrovich Belkin)
Vladimir, horrified, realized that he entered an unfamiliar forest.

"Что" is an explanatory conjunction meaning "that" which introduces independent clauses. For dependent clauses, "чтобы," which means "to (do something)" is used.

Всё сбиваю ее, уговариваю, чтоб она учиться пошла. (Chekhov, The Bride)
I am trying to drill it into her head to persuade her to study.

 

- несмотря на то что -

В степи было тихо, пасмурно, несмотря на то, что солнце поднялось. (Tolstoy, Cossaks)
It was quiet and cloudy on the steppe despite the fact that the sun had risen.

"Несмотря на то что" is a concussive conjunction meaning "despite" or "in spite of."

 


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