02.09.2010


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  Kvas_1
Kvass - refreshing, frothy, and bready - comes
in various flavors and types.
Photo from allday.ru.

 Mmmm… Kvass!
The other Russian drink
By Andrei Nesterov
with Josh Wilson

Квас (Kvass) is sometimes referred to as "bread drink" or even "bread cider" in English. We recommend just sticking with the word "квас," though. Brewed from black or rye bread, the drink may come with a range of consistencies similar to those found in beer and a distinctly "bready" taste.

The first recorded mention of квас in ancient Rus dates to 989 and is recorded in the Primary Chronicles, Russia's oldest known written text. Here it is recorded that, when Kievan Prince Vladimir converted his subjects to Christianity he commanded that, in celebration, «раздать народу пищу, мед и квас» (food, honey, and kvass be distributed to the people).

Квас is considered a national drink on par with vodka throughout much of the former Soviet Union.

     Почему так называется?

The word “квас” is from ancient Russian, meaning “sour.”

While the noun is now generally used only for the name of the drink, adjectival forms taken from the verb кваситься (to ferment) can still be regularly encountered in modern Russian. Простокваша (prostokvasha), for instance, is a sour milk drink whose name translates to "simply-soured." Russians also eat a form of sauerkraut called квашенная капуста (sour cabbage).

 Kvas_3
Above: A kvass seller with "traditional" metal keg as spotted in Ukraine.

Below: American students on an SRAS-supported faculty led tour enjoying Teremok kvass sold from an outdoor cart.
kvass_4

 

The word “kwas” is also found in a number of other Slavic languages – in Polish, where it means “sourness,” in Czech and others.

   Как правильно пить квас?

Квас is primarily drunk in summer and is revered for its способность освежить в жаркий день (ability to refresh on a hot day). While квас is available in stores all year round, sales during winter months are negligible while in summer, квас sales rise to over 30% of Russia's non-alcoholic beverage market.

The Soviets produced квас on an industrial level. A street vendor would sell it from an огромная металлическая бочка (giant metal keg) by the mugful, wiping out the mug after each shot. These vendors can still be seen throughout Russia and some Central Asian states, although they are usually now equipped with одноразовые пластиковые стаканчики (disposable plastic cups).

Despite its availability on Soviet streets, квас was long known best as a напиток, изготовленный в домашних условиях (homemade drink). Soviet wives and grandmothers often гордились своими собственными секретными рецептами (prided themselves on their own "secret recipes").

It has always been known as a "people's drink:" cheap, relatively easy to make, and popular. This is shown in the saying «Щи с мясом, а нет — так хлеб с квасом, » meaning that even something as delicious (and luxurious a few centuries ago) as cabbage soup with meat is nothing compared to the basic pleasures of bread and квас.

The status of квас as a national staple is further emphasized by «Кабы хлеб да квас, так и все у нас» (If there is bread, there is квас, and all we need is with us.)

Квас has a high caloric value, contains significant quantities of витамины B1 и Е, также как и аминокислоты и микроэлементы (vitamins B1 and E, as well as amino acids and micronutrients). It is known to придает энергии и регулирует обменные процессы организма (energize and regulate the body’s metabolic processes). It prevents the reproduction of harmful microbes, and positively influences the cardiovascular system.

Although it still holds a traditional place in Russian life, квас is now most often purchased bottled in stores. Due largely to its primary product, квас, the Russian brewer Ochakavo holds third place in Russian beverage sales by value, after Coca-Cola and Pepsi (both of which also sell квас in Russia).

While most Russians consider квас distinctly Russian, появление кваса уходит своими корнями в глубокую древность (kvas can trace its roots to ancient history). The ancient Egyptians, besides brewing beer, also brewed квас and types of fruity квас are mentioned in the historical records of ancient Babylon.

  kvass_2  
Modern kvass! From top, clockwise: Ochakovo Kvass (Russia's market leader), Kruzhka i Bochka (kvass by Coke), Russkii Dar (kvass by Pepsi).

Квас is most often употребляется при комнатной температуре или слегка охлажденным (served at room temperature or slightly chilled). It is never served with ice.

     Как правильно готовить квас? 

Квас содержит небольшое количество алкоголя (Kvass contains small amounts of alcohol), as does any drink involving the use of yeast. Root beer, also traditionally a brewed drink, also contains traces of alcohol, although, like квас rarely more than 0.5% to 1.5%.  It is not recommended for children under the age of three to drink квас (or traditional root beer).

Закваска (Kvass fermentation starter) is sold in Russia, which contains yeast and malt, but both ingredients can be easily obtained in America in local brew shops or even online.

Пивные дрожжи или дрожжи для шампанского (Brewer's or Champagne yeast) is recommended to use, as it will dissolve easily and fully, creating a smother drink.

The water used to make квас is usually boiled and then the sugar added to create a syrup. The квас can be flavored at this time by boiling the water with мята, семена тмина, лимон, мед, ягоды, изюм или другие сухофрукты (mint, caraway seeds, lemon, honey, berries, raisins or other dried fruit). While boiling is recommended, make sure that the water has cooled before adding the yeast. Дрожжи испортятся, если их добавить в кипящую воду (Adding yeast to boiling water will kill it) and the квас will not ferment or carbonate properly.

When filling the bottles, make sure not to overfill them. Leave some space at the top for the gas to collect чтобы бутылка не взорвалась (so that the bottle doesn't explode). Always store the bottles upright – as the pressure builds, бутылки могут протечь (the bottles can leak) if they are not upright.

     Давай Приготовим!

See below for a free recipe for various versions of Russian kvass. See also the free videos online. If you are interested in cooking from Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, and other places in Eurasia, make sure to see our full, free Eurasian Cookbook online! You might also be interested in the following specialized cookbooks we've enjoyed:

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Квас «Русский» (красный)

Ингредиенты:

- 1 кг сухарей черного хлеба,
- 200 г сахара,
- 50 г дрожжей,
- 50 г изюма и
- 6 литров воды.
- Марля
- Большие фляги

Высушите хлеб, порежьте не куски и поместите в духовку, нагретую до 350F примерно на полчаса. Эти куски должны зажариться до хрустящего состояния, но не сгореть.

Поместите куски в большую флягу и залейте их 5 литрами кипящей воды. Замачивайте 6-8 часов и затем перелейте жидкость в отдельный контейнер, процедив через марлю.

Вскипятите другую воду и добавьте туда сахар и изюм. Охладите до  температуры немного выше комнатной и добавьте дрожжи. Добавьте все это в первую жидкость.  

Затем разлейте по бутылкам и оставьте в теплом месте на 24 часа, и затем переставьте в холодное место и держите там 72 часа. Теперь пейте это!

Russian Red Kvass

Ingredients:

- 1 kg dried black bread pieces
- 200 g sugar
- 50 g yeast
- 50 g raisins
- 6 liters water
- Cheese cloth
- Large jars

To dry the bread, cut it into strips and place in an oven heated to 350F for about a half hour. The pieces should be crispy but not burnt.

Place the pieces in a large jar and pour 5 liters of boiling water over them. Let soak for 6-8 hours and strain out the liquid into a separate container through cheese cloth.

Boil the other liter of water and add the sugar and raisins. Stir well. Let cool to just above room temperature and add the yeast. Add this to the strained liquid from before. 

Now pour into bottles and leave in a warm place for 24 hours, and then move to a cold place for 72 hours. Now drink it!

Белый квас

Ингредиенты:

1/2 кг ржаного солода
1/2 кг ячменного солода
1/2 кг пшеничной муки
1/4 ржаной муки
1/2 кг гречневой муки
4 литра воды
1/2 столовых ложек дрожжей
Тмин, изюм, мята (по вкусу)
Марля
Большие фляги

 

Ячменный и ржаной солод залейте половиной литра теплой воды. Добавьте пшеничную и гречневую муку и, непрерывно помешивая, влейте 2,5 литра кипящей воды. Оставьте это "варево" на малом огне в течение шести часов, потом вскипятите в остающемся литре воды тмин, изюм и мяту и добавьте кипящую воду в эту смесь. Хорошо размешайте, чтобы не осталось комков.

После того, как смесь нагреется, добавьте дрожжи, растворенные в небольшом количестве теплой воды, и поставьте смесь в холодное место на два дня. Потом процедите жидкость через два слоя марли, разлейте в бутылки, и держите их в холодном месте еще два дня перед потреблением.

White Kvass

Ingredients:

- 1/2 kg rye malt
- 1/2 kg barley malt
- 1/2 kg wheat flour
- 1/4 kg rye flour
- 1/2 kg buckwheat flour
- 4 liters water
- 1/2 Table spoon yeast
- Caraway seeds (to taste)
- Raisins (to taste)
- Mint (to taste)
- Cheese cloth
- Large jars

Mix barley and rye malt with warm a half liter of warm water. Add wheat and buckwheat flour and, stirring continuously, pour in 2.5 liters of boiling water. Leave the “brew” over low heat for six hours, now boil the remaining liter of water with the caraway, raisins, and mint and add the boiling water to the mixture. Stir well, making sure no lumps remain.

After the mixture becomes warm, add yeast diluted with a little warm water and chill the mixture for two days. Then strain through two layers of cheesecloth, pour into bottles, and store them in a cold place for another two days before consuming.

Our Favorite Kvass Commercials

A commercial based on Nikola's former ad campaign calling for Russians to drink kvass because it was "nikola" (not cola). Coke and Pepsi appealed to Russia's advertisers' union and had the campaign pulled, saying that it unfairly marketed against their products.

This bizzare little commercial is from Ochakovo, a company that makes good kvass and legendarily bad advertisements. Here, a group of tourists gawking at the architectural marvels of Los Angeles has one of their number saved by some guy who happens to have a couple cans of kvass on him. And then he gets the girl too! Ooh, how refreshing!


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